Women’s Reproductive Rights

Abstract

In recent discussions involving Planned Parenthood, a controversial issue has been whether the government should fund or defund the organization. On the one hand, some argue that Planned Parenthood is mainly an organization created for performing abortions. On the other hand, however, others argue that Planned Parenthood is an important resource that provides various health care services such as cervical cancer screenings, checkups, mammograms, and contraceptives to lower-income women who do not have access to these services. In the words of Karen DeCrow, one of this view’s proponents, “Planned Parenthood is the most important private provider of reproductive healthcare for women in the United States.” According to this view, Planned Parenthood has a right to operate and provide women with some of their basic healthcare needs.

My own view is that Planned Parenthood should be funded by the government. Though I concede that religion plays a strong role in our society and influences individuals’ beliefs, I still maintain that Planned Parenthood is a beneficial organization for men and women. For example, Planned Parenthood provides cancer screening services and with early detection it can save many lives. A large number of women are at risk for various health problems, and one of the main cause for this is because of their socioeconomic status and the delay of appropriate treatment. Although some might object that Planned Parenthood has insidious motives, or the organization is misappropriating funding, I would reply that most of the opponents have not been denied their basic rights to choose what is best for them, or they have the resources necessary for their well-being. The issue is important because this is not only about contraceptives, abortions or money, this is an issue of women’s rights and their right to choose what is best for their health.

 

At the age of 27, Colleen discovered a lump in her breast but she was unable to visit a private physician due to the overwhelming cost of medical care. Colleen did not have any family previous members diagnosed with cancer, which led her to disregard her discovery. However, Colleen realized that Planned Parenthood offers free breast exams to lower income women, and after a visit at her local clinic, she learned that she was diagnosed with invasive stage 2 breast cancer. After her diagnosis, Planned Parenthood informed Colleen that she has many options to prevent cancer from growing. Colleen stated that she took the necessary steps such as “chemotherapy, radiation, a lumpectomy, and five years of hormone treatment” in order to prevent cancer from growing.

In 1916, Margaret Sanger, along with her sister, Ethel Byrne and Fania Mindell established the earliest birth control clinic in the United States. The debate on abortions was amplified in 1973 with Roe v. Wade when the United States Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional and that a woman has a right to privacy under the Fourth Amendment’s Due Process Clause. Planned Parenthood v. Danforth was an abortion case in 1973, requiring the parental consent and spousal notice for abortion procedures, which is similar to Planned Parenthood v. Casey in 1992, was an another attempt to restrict abortions by adding provisions such as informed consent, parental consent, spousal notice, “Medical Emergency” definition and Reporting Requirements.  The United State Supreme Court upheld four of the provisions except for Spousal Notice. Despite what many people believe about Planned Parenthood, over the last 100 years, the organization has continuously overcome many challenges and advocated women’s reproductive rights. The government should fund Planned Parenthood because it provides various services to millions lower income individuals.

In many countries, women are often denied their reproductive rights. One of the reason is because of the strong influence of religion. There are many conservatives who believe that organizations such as Planned Parenthood are destroying the conservative belief that women are not allowed to be sexually liberated. Many religious groups believe that Planned Parenthood will encourage young people to have more sex and participate in risky behaviors. In the article, “Anti-Abortion Groups Target Funding of Planned Parenthood,” Sharmila Devi reports of the various strategies used by anti-abortion groups of terminating the Planned Parenthood organization. Devi discusses the heavily falsified and graphic video, released by David Daleiden, the leader of the anti-abortion group, Center for Medical Progress (CMP), claims that Planned Parenthood is conducting illegal acts, altering abortions and selling fetal tissue for profits. Center for Medical Progress, the Alliance Defending Freedom, and the Charlotte Lozier Institute claim that if Planned Parenthood was defunded, there are health centers that are able to provide services to lower-income women. Most of these pro-life activists and anti-abortion groups are often driven by their religious beliefs that the termination of a pregnancy is a crime against God’s creation.

People who are in support of defunding Planned Parenthood use religion as an excuse to put limits on women’s rights. Pro-life activists have the right to exercise their beliefs. However, some of these groups have refused to protest in peace, instead, they exercise their right by planning various dangerous attacks on Planned Parenthood, as well as verbally attacking the organization’s employees. In response to these anti-abortion groups, Sara Rosenbaum, a professor of health law and policy at George Washington University argue that the situation would be dire if there are millions of women will have to wait or travel to other states in order to receive care. Rosenbaum claims that most health centers are currently unable to provide medical assistance to many communities, and it would be nearly impossible to provide care for these women if there is an abrupt change. Devi reminds the reader that even though President Obama has stated that defunding Planned Parenthood would be a federal violation, the organization is currently restricted from using federal funds to perform any future abortion procedures.

Although politicians or the government do not have the authority to speak on behalf of women, politics has always had a role in Planned Parenthood and the issue of women’s reproductive rights Pro-life politicians have vigorously attempted to shut down Planned Parenthood over the last 100 years, they’re the only argument was that the organization is solely responsible for performing abortions. Representative Kathy Castor, Democrat of Florida stated that House Republicans are attempting to pass a bill “to inflame the passions that are based on false videos, distorted clips, that was part of a coordinated smear campaign all across the country, is being used as a foundation to close the government.” Representative Castor believes that the actions taken by the Republican Congress are vastly impacting women’s health care. Speaker John A. Boehner stated that “those who would deny the weakest among us the right to life are on the wrong side of history.” However, denying women their right to make choices regarding their bodies is a major setback for future generations (Herszenhorn, 2015). One of Planned Parenthood’s spokesman, Eric Ferrero stated that this bill was another way for politicians to take control of women’s right to health. The majority of the Democratic party agree that Planned Parenthood helps many men and women, which they are able to do because of their various services. Democrats in favor of Planned Parenthood are attacking the organization is an excuse to “limit a woman’s reproductive choice.” Aside from personal beliefs, most of the politicians against Planned Parenthood are mainly focused on the use of taxpayers’ money used to help lower income men and women (Herszenhorn, 2015).

There are many reasons why an organization such as Planned Parenthood is crucial for millions of Americans. However, the role of conservative Republicans and pro-life groups have made it challenging for Planned Parenthood to safely provide care to men and women. In the article, “A Bad Year For Reproductive Rights,” published in The New York Times, members of the Editorial Board review the significant role politics played in 2015 regarding the issue of women’s reproductive rights. The Editorial Board reports that there were 57 new constraints on women’s rights to abortion and the possibility of more constraints that inevitably rise in 2016. The Board discusses the TRAP laws, known as Targeted Regulation of Abortion Providers and the effect has on women across several states with strict anti-abortion views. These laws have forced many abortion clinics to restrict their services forcing women to seek out help from other states. Due to these laws and restrictions on women’s rights to choose, there is an increase in the possibility that many women will attempt to terminate a pregnancy without any medical help or knowledge. In many states where these are incredibly strict, termination of a pregnancy, women may face charges for attempted murder.

The authors provide results from a survey that “estimated that 100,000 to 240,000 Texas women ages 18 to 49 have attempted a self-induced abortion without medical assistance.” The results from the study show that these women most likely lack basic resources such as contraceptives most likely due to financial needs. The authors claim that Arizona and Arkansas “passed laws requiring doctors to give women misleading information about the possibility of “reversing” a medication-induced abortion.” The authors assert that even though “modern, evidence-based drug protocol for medication abortion” is more effective and inexpensive, Arkansas has banned this method to be practiced in many clinics. These laws should be overruled not only because of their effects on women’s health but also because politicians do not have the authority to deny women the right to make decisions regarding their bodies.

In the journal article, “Planned Parenthood At Risk,” from the New England Journal of Medicine, George P. Topulos, M.D., Michael F. Greene, M.D., and Jeffrey M. Drazen, M.D., report that Planned Parenthood is under attack by anti-abortion groups. The article was released in September 2015 when a fabricated video surfaced showing the organization’s misuse of fetal tissue donations. Topulos et al. acknowledge Planned Parenthood for following ethical guidelines and support the utilization of fetal tissue that was donated by women in order to medical purposes. In 2013, data collected from Planned Parenthood show that the organization “provided services to 2.7 million women, men, and young people during 4.6 million health center visits. At least 60% of these patients benefited from public health coverage programs such as the nation’s family-planning program (Title X) and Medicaid. At least 78% of these patients lived with incomes at or below 150% of the federal poverty level.” The authors report that Planned Parenthood has provided some of the essential services such as “400,000 Pap tests, nearly 500,000 breast examinations, nearly 4.5 million tests for sexually transmitted illnesses (including HIV), and treatments” to their patients.

Planned Parenthood was established because Margaret Sanger’s believed in providing women with a safe environment for receiving proper health care. In the journal article, “Planned Parenthood And The Next Generation Of Feminist Activists,” Dawn Laguens argue that despite the belief that millennials are not as active in important causes such as the feminist movement or their thoughts on abortion rights, the younger generation is more involved than many people believe. Planned Parenthood has played  a significant role in the lives of many young women, as well as the negative effects that would transpire due to defunding Planned Parenthood. The problem is not that millennials have a limited understanding of these issues but the it is the poor method of communication. Laguens reports that in 2011, “state legislatures nearly tripled the previous record of provisions restricting abortion” which is the sum of one hundred and thirty-five. Laguens claims that in mid-2012, “states enacted thirty-nine new provisions that restrict a woman’s access to safe and legal abortion.” In some states, prior to an abortion, the mandatory ultrasound laws which are in place to require physicians to perform an ultrasound and deliver information that is not based on science. Due to these restrictions, it is crucial that the younger generation understand the seriousness of these issues in order to move forward and “deliver on the promise of Roe v. Wade, the promise of equity and equality that generations of women have fought for, the promise of a world where women make their own decisions and have full access to healthcare, no matter who they are or where they live.” Society should strengthen these feminists beliefs and allow the younger generation to fully grasp the issues surrounding women’s rights instead of denying them the right to make their own choices.

It is imperative that women are thoroughly educated on the resources that are available to them and necessary for their overall well-being. In the medical journal article, “Ethical Issues Relating To Reproduction Control And Women’s Health,” from the International Journal of Gynecology And Obstetrics, J. G. Schenker and  V. H. Eisenberg emphasize the importance of women’s reproductive rights. Schenker and Eisenberg praise the development of various methods of contraception and insist on the positive impact they have on women’s health such as lowering the risk of sexually transmitted disease, endometrial and ovarian cancer. The pro-life belief of a fetus as a “patient” denounces women’s autonomy. Schenker and Eisenberg advocate that women have the right to abortion, their basic health care needs and they are free to make their own choices for which they should not be condemned by society.

The debate over women’s health rights has been an issue for many years. However, religion and politics managed to have a significant impact on women’s rights for thousands of years. Women had to struggle for many years for their basic rights but gloriously succeeded in accomplishing many of their goals and with hard work, they acquired their rights to equality. One of the current women’s rights issue is the proposal to end the funding for Planned Parenthood and shut down all of the organization’s clinics around the United States. Planned Parenthood is the main source for millions of lower-income people where they can receive their basic health care without the worry of excessive debt. If Planned Parenthood clinics were terminated, it would negatively impact millions of men and women.

Planned Parenthood is often misunderstood because pro-life activists have instilled the idea that the organization is solely responsible for performing abortion procedures. The pro-life groups have continuously attacked, falsified information and created intricate lies in order to shut down Planned Parenthood. However, these attempts to end Planned Parenthood are not new, these attacks have persisted since the organization was established in 1916. Planned Parenthood provides various services such as cancer screening, contraception, and treatments for many sexually transmitted diseases. These services not only benefit women, but they also provide services to men and families in general.

If Planned Parenthood was defunded because political and religious influence, the government should contemplate the negative effect it would have on future generations. The government should continue to fund Planned Parenthood because the organization’s mission is to help men and women. Denying these health care rights is considered to be “war on women” which not only affects women today but the next generation of strong, independent girls across the globe. It has been Eleven years since Colleen was diagnosed with invasive stage 2 breast cancer but because she was able to receive a breast cancer screening at Planned Parenthood, she is able to live a healthy lifestyle and encourage women to take care of their bodies, and not to limit their health care needs due to financial difficulties. Women are constantly oppressed by society due to their gender and the belief that the primary role of women is to procreate. In many cases, the topic of abortion is whether the procedure should be legal or illegal, but the law should not be involved in women’s health. The government should fund Planned Parenthood because the organization’s primary mission is to help millions of lower-income men and women, and society as a whole should encourage women’s autonomy and protect their basic human rights.

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Image via http://rosierespect.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/6952046495_96ab69e6da_o-584×396.jpg

References

Devi, S. (2015). Anti-abortion groups target funding of planned parenthood. The Lancet, 386(9997), 941. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00113-0

Herszenhorn, D. M. (2015, September 28). House Republicans vote to stop funding planned parenthood. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/19/us/planned-parenthood-government-funding.html?_r=1

Laguens, D. (2013). Planned parenthood and the next generation of feminist activists. Feminist Studies, 39(1), 187-191.

Schenker, J. G., & Eisenberg, V. H. (1997). Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women’s health. International Journal Of Gynecology And Obstetrics, 58(1), 167-176.

The Editorial Board (2015, December 19). A Bad Year For Reproductive Rights: [Editorial]. The New York Times, p. 10.

Topulos, M.D., G. P., Greene, M.D., M. F., & Drazen, M.D., J. M. (2015). Planned parenthood at risk. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(10), 963. doi:10.1056/NEJMe1510281

Logos & Ethos

In my argument, my primary audience members are women, but my targeted audience is not limited to a certain demographic. The main goal of my argument is to persuade men, women, as well as the opposing audiences of the benefits provided by Planned Parenthood. I believe in women’s right to make choices regarding their health, yet some readers may challenge my view by insisting that giving women this amount of freedom is too much or unnecessary. Of course, many will probably disagree with my views on the grounds that women’s reproductive rights allow women to defy the opposition’s religious views on abortion, contraception, etc.

I believe in women’s right to make choices regarding their health, yet some readers may challenge my view by insisting that giving women this amount of freedom is too much or unnecessary. Of course, many will probably disagree with my views on the grounds that women’s reproductive rights allow women to defy the opposition’s religious views on abortion, contraception, etc. Although not all devout religious individuals or Republicans think alike, some of them will probably dispute my claim that women’s right to choose should always be separate from religion and politics.

Many feminists would probably object that politicians have no right to use religion as an excuse to deny women their right to make choices regarding their bodies. Proponents of pro-life are right to argue for their religious views. But they exaggerate when they claim that anyone who does not share their views are sinners or murderers. While it is true that if Planned Parenthood were completely defunded, there are various other health clinics that women can seek out, it does not necessarily follow that lower income men and women will be able to acquire some of their crucial healthcare needs. Although I grant that Planned Parenthood is currently successful, I still maintain that the government should continue to fund the organization because attacks on Planned Parenthood raises an important issue on women’s reproductive rights. abortioncaravan

http://www.gender-focus.com/2012/11/07/union-sisters-talk-reproductive-rights/

Debate Over Women’s Rights

The debate over women’s health rights has been an issue for many years. However, women’s health rights should never have been part of a debate, but religion and politics managed to have a significant impact on women’s rights for thousands of years. Women had to struggle for many years for their basic rights but gloriously succeeded in accomplishing many of their goals and with hard work, they acquired their rights to equality.

One of the current women’s rights issue is the proposal to end the funding for Planned Parenthood and shut down all of the organization’s clinics around the United States. Planned Parenthood is the main source for millions of lower-income people where they can receive their basic healthcare without the worry of excessive debt. If Planned Parenthood clinics were terminated, it would negatively impact millions of men and women.

Planned Parenthood is often misunderstood because anti-choice activists have instilled the idea that the organization is mainly responsible for performing abortion procedures. The anti-choice groups have continuously attacked, falsified information and created intricate lies in order shut down Planned Parenthood. However, these attempts to end Planned Parenthood are not new, these attacks have persisted since the organization was established in 1916.

Planned Parenthood provides various services such as cancer screening, contraception, and treatments for many treatments. These services not only benefit women but they also provide help to men and families in general. The government should take action and continue to fund Planned Parenthood because the organization’s mission is to help men and women. Denying these healthcare rights to women is considered to be “war on women” which not only affects women today but the next generation of strong, independent girls across the globe.

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Women’s Rights Protest 1980. 

https://c2.staticflickr.com/8/7200/6979386424_b7f87ed0aa_b.jpg

 

The Arguments

These three articles discussed below argue my research question, strengthen and reaffirm my views on why the government should fund Planned Parenthood.

In the journal article, “Planned Parenthood And The Next Generation Of Feminist Activists,” Dawn Laguens argue that despite the belief that millennials are not as active in important causes such as the feminist movement or their thoughts on abortion rights, the younger generation is more involved than many people believe. Laguens reminds the reader of the significant role Planned Parenthood has played in the lives of many young women, as well as the negative effects that would transpire due to defunding Planned Parenthood. Laguens insist that the problem is not that millennials have a limited understanding of these issues but the problem is the method of communication. Laguens advocates that society should strengthen these feminists beliefs. I agree that it is important for the younger generation to fully grasp the issues surrounding women’s rights because, in my personal experience, lack of communication regarding these issues reduces the importance of why these issues are relevant to women. 

In this journal article, “Anti-Abortion Groups Target Funding of Planned Parenthood,” Sharmila Devi reports of the various strategies used by anti-abortion groups of terminating the Planned Parenthood organization. Devi discusses the heavily falsified and graphic video, released by David Daleiden, the leader of the anti-abortion group, Center for Medical Progress (CMP), claims that Planned Parenthood is conducting illegal acts, altering abortions and selling fetal tissue for profits.Center for Medical Progress, the Alliance Defending Freedom, and the Charlotte Lozier Institute claim that if Planned Parenthood was defunded, there are health centers that are able to provide services to lower-income women, however, Sara Rosenbaum, a professor of health law and policy at George Washington University argue that the situation would be dire if there are millions of women will have to wait or travel to other states in order to receive care. Rosenbaum claims that most health centers are currently unable to provide medical assistance to many communities, and it would be nearly impossible to provide care for these women if there is an abrupt change. The anti-abortion groups may be right on the statement that there are other ways for women to receive health care, but Planned Parenthood provides services to millions of people who cannot afford them at a regular hospital. Currently, many health clinics lack enough resources and are unable to provide various services to millions of lower income people.  

In the journal article, “Planned Parenthood At Risk,” from the New England Journal of Medicine, George P. Topulos, M.D., Michael F. Greene, M.D., and Jeffrey M. Drazen, M.D., report that Planned Parenthood is under attack by anti-abortion groups. This article was released in September 2015 when a fabricated video surfaced showing the organization’s misuse of fetal tissue donations. Topulos et al. acknowledge Planned Parenthood for following ethical guidelines and support the utilization of fetal tissue that was donated by women in order to medical purposes. The authors also praise the organization’s endeavor to help not only millions of women but also a number men across the United States. Those unfamiliar with this school of thought may be interested to know that it basically boils down to the fact that Planned Parenthood does not have an insidious motive and the organization’s primary goal is to provide women and men with basic healthcare needs. 

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Women of the World Unite. Image via Google.

 

Why Planned Parenthood?

infographicThe infographic I have created is about Planned Parenthood and how it has significantly affected millions of men and women. In my infographic, I attempt to persuade my audience on why it would be valuable to support Planned Parenthood. The purpose of my infographic is to provide a timeline of some of the most well-known historical events, as well as significant achievements of Planned Parenthood and for women’s reproductive rights. In the infographic, I focus on the most imperative information, such as Planned Parenthood’s sources of funds and how it is distributed to provide various services to millions of people throughout the United States.

One way the infographic achieves its purpose is by providing reliable information gathered from various sources such as the primary Planned Parenthood website, and the organizations secondary websites: I Stand With Planned Parenthood and Planned Parenthood Action. The Planned Parenthood websites provide annual reports, timelines of important historical events, and various data that lists all of the organization’s services provided to men and women in rural and underserved areas. I utilized information from two peer-reviewed articles published in the Guttmacher Institute. The journal article, “The Impact of Government Programs on Reproductive Health Disparities: Three Case Studies” by Heather D. Boonstra provides charts and graphs that convey the trends in abortion cases, the use of contraceptives over the years and how the government programs such as Medicaid’s changing policies has affected many women and families. In the journal article, “Abortion and Women of Color: The Bigger Picture” by Susan A. Cohen provides graphs and charts on how it is mostly lower income women and women of color who are more likely to have abortions than Caucasian women. The article, “How the Hyde Amendment Discriminates Against Poor Women and Women of Color,” published in the Center For American Progress by Jessica Arons and Lindsay Rosenthal lists the effects of the Hyde Amendment, and provides statistics on many topics such as the number of women in reproductive age who rely solely on Medicaid to pay for their health coverage.

In order to create my infographic, I chose a particular format that is easy to follow and provides all of the necessary information to help the audience better understand why Planned Parenthood is crucial for millions of men, women and families throughout the United States. In the infographic, I included a timeline of important events of Planned Parenthood, different court cases on women’s right to abortion and contraceptives. I chose the specific color palette and the different font styles precisely because I wanted these elements to correlate with the significance of each particular topic covered in the infographic. For example, I used the color red to highlight various attacks abortion clinics, as well as people in certain states. These rhetorical strategies allowed me to convey my argument and my position without using a vast amount of words.

Piktochart is an excellent and creative tool used to create visual representations of information on different topics. However, at first, I found the tool to be overwhelming but with time and practice, it allowed me to gather all of my ideas and present them using the creative resources provided by Piktochart. All of the information and data provided are crucial for my infographic, and for the audience because I think it is important that people are informed about the historical cases and conflicts that were significant in women’s right to choose and in the development of Planned Parenthood. I wanted to persuade the audience on the role Planned Parenthood plays in the lives of millions of people. The purpose of this infographic was to visually represent information using the least possible amount of words to keep the audience engaged and effortlessly acquire knowledge on various topics.

I n f o g r a p h II

For my infographic, I want to present the audience with the necessary information that is informative or even persuasive that will further boast my argument. The infograph will be straightforward, clear and concise. The articles provide statistics of women’s health issues that have yet to see a change.

The article, The Demographic Of Abortion: It’s Not What You Think published in the American Prospect, by Amanda Marcotte explains how because of the increase use of contraceptives, there has been a decline in unwanted pregnancies. However, approximately 42% of women live under the poverty line and when there is a lack of resources, women of color are affected the most, which raises the need for abortion services to rise. The article cites many statistics on women in different socioeconomic status, age, race, past and present rate of abortion which will be useful because these are significant information not only for my infograph but also the audience.

The Impact of Government Programs on Reproductive Health Disparities: Three Case Studies, a peer-reviewed article published in the Guttmacher Institute by Heather D. Boonstra examines the lack of education and resources available to young women and married couples looking to start a family. The article provides charts and graphs that convey the trends in abortion cases, the use of contraceptives over the years and the government programs such as Medicaid’s changing policies has affected many women and families.

Abortion and Women of Color: The Bigger Picture, a peer-reviewed article published in the Guttmacher Institute by Susan A. Cohen discusses how it is mostly women of color who are more likely to need abortion than Caucasian women. The article, How the Hyde Amendment Discriminates Against Poor Women and Women of Color published in the Center For American Progress Jessica Arons and Lindsay Rosenthal lists the effects of the Hyde Amendment on poor women and women of color. This article emphasizes on the fact that the Hyde Amendment was passed to deny poor women access to abortion. The article provides statistics on many topics such as the number of women in reproductive age who rely solely on Medicaid to pay for their health coverage. The article discusses how poor women and women of color are mostly affected when it comes it reproductive health. The article remind us that abortion costs are so high that it is difficult for many women to get an abortion without insurance. The article emphasizes on the fact that because the costs of abortion, women are forced to carry out their pregnancy despite the fact that most of these women are unable to provide for their baby. However, the main argument of both of these articles is that although poor women and women of color lack resources, this is an important issue for women in different ages, race and socioeconomic status.

History & Success Of Planned Parenthood published by Planned Parenthood reviews the history and success of the organization since it was established in 1916. The informative article reviews all of the court cases relevant to women’s reproductive rights, the attacks on Planned Parenthood and it provides statistics of the positive effect the organization has had on women over the years. These information are crucial for my infograph and for the audience because I think it is important that people are informed about the historical cases and conflicts that played a part in women’s right to choose and in the development of Planned Parenthood.

 

Women’s National Abortion Action Coalition. Image via Google Image.

 

I n f o g r a p h

Infographs are incredibly creative and often used during presentations on various topics. Infographs are used to deliver information in the most clear and concise way that is also visually stimulating for the audiences. Infographics are appealing to many people because of the many ways information can be presented to them that is straightforward and omits the use of excessive and irrelevant details. Infographs enable readers to effortlessly acquire knowledge on various subjects.

I chose Data Vis, Photo, and the Timeline infographics for this assignment because I like certain aspects of each design that will allow me to present the most important and relevant information to my audience in one method. I chose to draw inspiration from these three infographs because I want to customize a design that is suitable for my research as well as my audience. I will be utilizing many data and statistics that are crucial for bolstering my argument regarding if and why should the government fund Planned Parenthood.

In my infograph, I will be including information about Planned Parenthood and a timeline that shows the organization’s progression over the years, as well as the effects it has had on women since the organization was founded in 1916. I will provide a list of services that are provided to women and why they are important to women’s health. Also, I will provide a breakdown of how much of each services are used, as well as the amount of funding received by the organizations, and how the funding is distributed throughout the organization.

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The Importance of Visuals via Google Images.

Should The Government Fund Planned Parenthood?

Introduction

In recent discussions involving Planned Parenthood, a controversial issue has been whether the government should fund or defund organization. On the one hand, some argue that Planned Parenthood is mainly an organization created for performing abortions. On the other hand, however, others argue that Planned Parenthood is an important resource that provides various health care services such as cervical cancer screenings, checkups, mammograms, and contraceptives to lower-income women who do not have access to these services due to their socioeconomic status. In the words of Karen DeCrow, one of this view’s proponents, “Planned Parenthood is the most important private provider of reproductive healthcare for women in the United States.” According to this view, Planned Parenthood has a right to operate and provide women with some of their basic healthcare needs.

My own view is that Planned Parenthood should be funded by the government. Though I concede that religion plays a strong role in our society and influences individuals’ beliefs, I still maintain that Planned Parenthood is a beneficial organization for women. For example, many women can receive screenings for cervical cancer, and with early detection it can save many lives. A large number women are at risk for various health problems and one of the main cause for this is because of their socioeconomic status and the delay of appropriate treatment. Although some might object that Planned Parenthood has insidious motives or the organization is misappropriating funding, I would reply that most of the opponents have not been denied their basic rights to choose what is best for them, or they do not lack the resources necessary for their well-being. The issue is important because this is not only about contraceptives, abortions or money, this is an issue of women’s rights and their right to choose what is best for their health.

Annotated Bibliography

Devi, S. (2015). Anti-abortion groups target funding of planned parenthood. The Lancet, 386(9997), 941. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00113-0

In this journal article, “Anti-Abortion Groups Target Funding of Planned Parenthood,” Sharmila Devi reports of the various strategies used by anti-abortion groups of terminating the Planned Parenthood organization. Devi discusses the heavily falsified and graphic video, released by David Daleiden, the leader of the anti-abortion group, Center for Medical Progress (CMP), claims that Planned Parenthood is conducting illegal acts, altering abortions and selling fetal tissue for profits. Devi observes that abortions make up 3% of the services at Planned Parenthood but many women are in support of the organization because it provides various services such as screenings, check-up and contraceptives. Center for Medical Progress, the Alliance Defending Freedom and the Charlotte Lozier Institute claim that if Planned Parenthood was defunded, there are health centers that are able to provide services to lower-income women, however, Sara Rosenbaum, a professor of health law and policy at George Washington University argue that the situation would be dire if there are millions of women will have to wait or travel to other states in order to receive care. Rosenbaum claims that most health centers are currently unable to provide medical assistance to many communities, and it would be nearly impossible to provide care for these women if there is an abrupt change. Devi reminds the reader that even though President Obama has stated that defunding Planned Parenthood would be a federal violation, the organization is currently restricted from using federal funds to perform any future abortion procedures. The intended audience varies because the primary goal of this article is to inform the reader of the current events surrounding Planned Parenthood.

This article provides information of some of the well known anti-abortion groups and their views, this will be helpful in answering my research question because in order to deliver my argument, I have to review the oppositions of funding Planned Parenthood.

Laguens, D. (2013). Planned parenthood and the next generation of feminist activists. Feminist Studies, 39(1), 187-191.

In the journal article, “Planned Parenthood And The Next Generation Of Feminist Activists,” Dawn Laguens argue that despite the belief that millennials are not as active in important causes such as the feminist movement or their thoughts on abortion rights, the younger generation is more involved than many people believe. Laguens reminds the reader of the significant role Planned Parenthood has played in the lives of many young women, as well as the negative effects that would transpire due to defunding Planned Parenthood. Laguens insist that the problem is not that millennials have limited understanding in these issues but the problem is the method of communication. Laguens reports that in 2011, “state legislatures nearly tripled the previous record of provisions restricting abortion” which is the sum of one hundred and thirty-five. Laguens claims that in mid-2012, “states enacted thirty-nine new provisions that restrict a woman’s access to safe and legal abortion.” Laguens asserts that in some states, prior to an abortion, the mandatory ultrasound laws which are in place to require physicians to perform an ultrasound and deliver information that is not based in science. Laguens suggests that because of these restrictions, it is crucial that the younger generation understand the seriousness of these issues in order to move forward and “deliver on the promise of Roe v. Wade, the promise of equity and equality that generations of women have fought for, the promise of a world where women make their own decisions and have full access to healthcare, no matter who they are or where they live.” Laguens advocates that society should strengthen these feminists beliefs and allow the younger generation to fully grasp the issues surrounding women’s rights.

The intended audience of this article are the younger generation and as a millennial, I can relate to this article on a personal level and this is will be helpful in answering my research question because it targets a certain demographic and it is important to examine different aspects.

Schenker, J. G., & Eisenberg, V. H. (1997). Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women’s health. International Journal Of Gynecology And Obstetrics, 58(1), 167-176.

In the medical journal article, “Ethical Issues Relating To Reproduction Control And Women’s Health,” from the International Journal of Gynecology And Obstetrics, J. G. Schenker and  V. H. Eisenberg emphasize on the importance of women’s reproductive rights. Schenker and Eisenberg praise the development of various methods of contraception and insist on the positive impact they have on women’s health such as lowering the risk of sexually transmitted disease, endometrial and ovarian cancer. Schenker and Eisenberg insist that it is imperative that women are thoroughly educated on the resources that are available to them and necessary for their overall well-being. According to Schenker and Eisenberg, the pro-life belief of a fetus as a “patient” denounces women’s autonomy. Schenker and Eisenberg advocate that women have the right to abortion, their basic health care needs and they are free to make their own choices for which they should not be condemned by society. Schenker and Eisenberg argue that women are constantly oppressed by society due to their gender and the belief that the primary role of women is to procreate. Schenker and Eisenberg remind the reader that in many cases the topic of abortion is whether the procedure should be legal or illegal but the law should not be involved in women’s health. Schenker and Eisenberg advocate that the government and the society should encourage women’s autonomy and protect their basic human rights. The intended audience of this article are people who advocate equal rights for women, but Schenker and Eisenberg’s view may contradict many people’s beliefs and values regarding women’s reproductive rights.

This article may be useful to my research question because it reflects and strengthens my views on women’s rights.

The Editorial Board (2015, December 19). A Bad Year For Reproductive Rights: [Editorial]. The New York Times, p. 10.

In the article, “A Bad Year For Reproductive Rights,” published in The New York Times, members of the Editorial Board review the significant role politics played in 2015 regarding the issue of women’s reproductive rights. This news article is most likely to generate attention from readers who are in support for women’s reproductive rights. The Editorial Board reports that there were 57 new constraints on women’s rights to abortion and the possibility of more constraints that inevitably rise in 2016. The Board discuss the TRAP laws, known as Targeted Regulation of Abortion Providers and the affect is has on women across several states with strict anti-abortion views. These laws have forced many abortion clinics restrict their services forcing women to seek out help from other states. The Board reminds the audience that due to these laws and restrictions on women’s rights to choose, there is an increase in the possibility that many women will attempt to terminate a pregnancy without any medical help or knowledge. The Board warn that in many states where these are incredibly strict, termination of a pregnancy, women may face charges for attempted murder. The Board support their claim by providing results from a survey that “estimated that 100,000 to 240,000 Texas women ages 18 to 49 have attempted a self-induced abortion without medical assistance.” The results from the study show that these women most likely lack basic resources such as contraceptives most likely due to financial needs. The Board claim that Arizona and Arkansas “passed laws requiring doctors to give women misleading information about the possibility of “reversing” a medication-induced abortion.” The Board assert that even though “modern, evidence-based drug protocol for medication abortion” is more effective and inexpensive, Arkansas has banned this method to be practiced in clinics. The Editorial Board insist that these laws should be overruled not only because of their effects on women’s health but also because politics or politicians have no right to take away women’s right make decisions regarding their bodies. Many politicians, majority of the members of the Republican Party have attempted to shut down family planning services such as Planned Parenthood, which provides lower-income women with various services.

This article is useful because it presented an overview of the most recent events related to women’s rights issues and that is relevant to my research question.

Topulos, M.D., G. P., Greene, M.D., M. F., & Drazen, M.D., J. M. (2015). Planned parenthood at risk. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(10), 963. doi:10.1056/NEJMe1510281

In the journal article, “Planned Parenthood At Risk,” from the New England Journal of Medicine, George P. Topulos, M.D., Michael F. Greene, M.D., and Jeffrey M. Drazen, M.D., report that Planned Parenthood is under attack by anti-abortion groups. This article was released in September 2015 when a fabricated video surfaced showing the organization’s misuse of fetal tissue donations. Topulos et al. acknowledge Planned Parenthood for following ethical guidelines and support the utilization of fetal tissue that were donated by women in order to medical purposes. The authors also praise the organization’s endeavor to help not only millions of women but also a number men across the United States. The authors use data from 2013, collected from Planned Parenthood to show that the organization “provided services to 2.7 million women, men, and young people during 4.6 million health center visits. At least 60% of these patients benefited from public health coverage programs such as the nation’s family-planning program (Title X) and Medicaid. At least 78% of these patients lived with incomes at or below 150% of the federal poverty level.”The authors report that Planned Parenthood have provided some of the most essential services such as “400,000 Pap tests, nearly 500,000 breast examinations, nearly 4.5 million tests for sexually transmitted illnesses (including HIV), and treatments” to their patients. Although the authors are in support for Planned Parenthood and their intended audience are supporters of the organization, this article is beneficial to individuals in understanding the importance of Planned Parenthood.

This article is helpful for my research question because it includes credible sources that provide accurate statistics and reaffirms my views on the importance of Planned Parenthood clinics.

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Stand Up For Women’s Health image via Google

The Importance of Proper Care

In the article, Practices Regarding Rape Related Pregnancies In U.S. Abortion Care Settings, Rachel Murphy, M.D., MPH, Molly Murphy, MPH, Kristin M. Rankin, PhD, Allison Cowett, MD, MPH, Bryna Harwood, MD, MS., observe the process of post-assault care for rape victims and the ramifications of rape. Murphy et al. (2015) report the care patients currently receive in many clinics and hospitals and they support their claim by collecting data and statistics of rape related pregnancies and abortions through out the United States. 

Murphy et al. (2015) support their claims by providing the reader with multiple scientific findings conducted by them, as well as national data collected acquired from other sources. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists emphasizes on the importance of proper patient care for those who were victims of sexual assault. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists insist that proper patient care “includes attention to acute physical trauma, counseling and provision of emergency contraception if indicated, mental health care, and tests or prophylaxis for sexually transmitted infections.” These are some of the most crucial procedures that many clinics fail practice and provide to women. 

Murphy et al. acknowledge that often many people overlook some of the serious results of rape, such as “physical injury, sexually transmitted disease, and mental health problems, including post-traumatic stress disorder and substance abuse.” The authors insist that the stigma attached to rape makes it difficult for women to ask for help. This is not only because rape victims are often afraid or feel shame, but also because physical and psychological trauma play a major role in their decision making. The authors remind us that many women are only aware of very few options available to them. However, the authors believe physicians and primary care providers have the resources and encourage them to provide women with more help, not only in physical checkups, but also in emergency contraceptives to prevent pregnancies, counseling and support for their mental health. 

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Statistics of rape victims throughout different races. Image via Google.